When we talk about cultivation of Marihuanna, we have to talk about the trichomes, because it is the part of the plant where the cannabinoids and terpenes that the plant generates are concentrated.
Trichomes are found in many plant species. The word "trichoma" comes from the Greek word "trichōma" which means "hair", and at first glance, they look like fine and small hairs.
In this post, we are going to talk about Cannabis trichomes and answer some frequently asked questions: what they are, what they are for, types, maturity, etc.
María Trichomes What are they?
They are glands that develop in the epidermis of plants, not only in Cannabis, as they are also found, for example, in nettles, mallow or alfalfa, among others.
We can define the trichomes in the following way:
They are appendages or excrescences of the epidermis of plants and they have very varied functions: absorb water, regulate temperature or protect against sunlight and predators. Cannabis possesses glandular trichomes since they secrete sticky "resin" compounds that trap insects or substances that irritate them, kill or modify their behavior.
Colloquially, they are called "hairs" although they are also known by the name of "resin", and they are, possibly the most important part for lovers of cannabis extractions and concentrates.
It is these hairs, not only the psychoactive substances (those looking for recreational consumers) but it is also that part of the plant where the non-psychoactive cannabinoids such as CBD (non-psychoactive therapeutic properties) and terpenes, which are hydrocarbons that give the plant its odor and particular properties and that work together with the cannabinoids to provide exclusive profiles of effects in each plant.
Thanks to them, we can determine the point of maturity of the plant and know the exact time for your harvest. As the plant develops, its appendices go through different stages or degrees of maturity, being the most famous and desired glandular trichomes notched.
The color of the heads of the trichomes glandular It will unveil the optimal point to cut marijuana, whether in indoor or outdoor crops.
In the Marijuana plant, trichomes are the "culprits" of psychoactive actions, since cannabinoids such as THC, CBD or CBN are concentrated in them.
They are tiny, and although they can be seen with the naked eye on the floor, it is necessary to use a magnifying glass or a microscope to be able to observe them correctly and determine at what point of maturation they find.
These glands they develop spectacularly in the phase of maturation of Cannabis, and it is at that moment when we must observe them, since a change in color will indicate the ideal time to harvest.
Function of trichomes What are trichomes used for?
Surely it is a question that you have asked yourself if you are a Cannabis grower. These glands have several functions in the plant, so you can not talk about a single function.
The production of these glands can be observed in many species of plants throughout nature, adopting diverse physical forms and serving to many different purposes. For example, the trichomes found in some carnivorous plants help trap prey.
In cannabis, they work like a defense mechanism. When female cannabis plants begin to produce flowers in the wild, they often become vulnerable to various insects and animals, as well as non-living environmental variables, such as UV rays potentially harmful.
The "hairs" serve as a deterrent for animals because their bitter taste and strong aromas make the flowers of cannabis be unpleasant. At the same time, they also have a dual function to protect their plants from damaging winds and even some varieties of growth of fungi.
- They protect the plant from some insects: The resin is a defense mechanism of the plant against some insects. Many insects will stay stuck in the sticky trichomes and another directly or approach to find the smell generated by unpleasant trichomes.
- Avoid being consumed by Animals: Substances such as tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids that are generated in these glands, have psychoactive effects, and make it not to the liking of many animals so it serves to reduce their predators.
- They prevent drying: These "hairs" also have the function of preventing that in case of low humidity, the flowers and Marijuana Seeds are damaged as it can happen in summer or in crops with low humidity.
- Protection against ultraviolet rays: The excess of ultraviolet radiation, especially UV-B rays are harmful even to plants. The THC that the resin produces helps absorb this radiation and protect it. In fact, the more radiation the plant receives, the more resin it produces.
Types of trichomes
Basically there are two types of trichomes that the female cannabis plant generates throughout its life, since the cotyledons and the first leaves are generated until senescence and they are the grand and not glandular.
Simple unicellular trichomes
They are the ones appear first and they are located in the surface area of the cotyledons. They are generated throughout the development of the plant on the underside, and to a lesser extent on the surface. Its objective is to avoid the loss of water and provide insulation in case of extreme temperatures. It looks structurally like a hair.
They also arise in the early stages of Cannabis life, since they are present in the surface area of the first real leaves of the plant. They are very similar to simple unicellular trichomes, but are distinguished in that the cystolytics are more elongated and have a cosolith on the base based on calcium carbonate. They give you one rough texture to the leaves, helping them to protect themselves from predators.
Sesame glandular trichomes
They are a type of resin glands that measure about 25 microns that have no foot or stem and that are linked to the epidermis by means of a single cell that acts as a stem and that remains hidden under the glandular head. The head has secretory cells in the lower area, and the area that separates it from the membrane Cannabinoids and essential oils are stored that produce these cells.
Sessile antecedent trichomes
Sessile trichomes have been found in anthers of the plant of Maihuana. They are a type of larger sessile trichomes, which can measure around 80 microns. You can see also in the calyx that surrounds the anther, but smaller, similar to the rest of sessile trichomes.
They are a variety of reduced glandular tricoma, which measure approximately 10-20 microns. They are usually generated initially in the stem and leaves of the low area of the plant, but also they are located in all the aerial part of this one. They can be formed in two cells that join a single head or also have a glandular head formed with different compartments.
Glandular trichomes notched
As we have commented previously, they are the most interesting due to the large amount of cannabinoids and terpene they possess.
They are present in the chalices, petioles, bracts and bracteolos of the feminized cannabis specimens. They can also occur near the anthers in some varieties of male cannabis.
It has a structure similar to that of sessile trichomes, but notched when mature. They have a glandular head that is held by a stem, which is made up of different cells. The stem develops as the trichoma matures, therefore, in its initial stages, it can be complicated to distinguish from a sessile trichoma.
Regarding the head, it is very similar to that of the sessiles but they are larger (with a basal part that links them to the stem, a disk based on secretory cells and a storage space for active ingredients). These heads increase in size as the secretory cells generate compounds, being able to reach a size around 70-100 microns.
Color of Trichomes – Sign for Harvesting Plants
The color of the glands tells us a lot about the development of the plant, including the contents of cannabinoids. Many growers observe trichomes to find the best time to harvest their plants.
The color change is difficult to see without a magnifying glass or microscopes. During the last weeks of flowering, the appendices are reviewed regularly for clues about their development.
1. Translucent / Transparent Tricomas
When the appendages are still completely translucent, they are in the process of producing cannabinoids and the plant still not ready for harvest. When they begin to turn milky white, it is time to prepare for harvest.
2. Opaque / Milky White Trichomes
When most of the trichomes have turned turbid white, they have reached maximum levels of cannabinoids: the collection of the plants will now provide the maximum psychoactive effects, later, once the buds have dried and cured. Ideal for harvesting. Cannabis will have greater cerebral and energizing effect with high levels of THC.
3. Amber / Brown trichomes
Once the plant reaches its full maturity, its appendages begin to turn amber (around 10-20%) there is a brief Collection window before the degradation begins. Many growers prefer this point of maturity, because cannabis offers a mixed effect. At this point, the shoots will offer more than one tall body, like most Indica strains.
4. More than 80% Amber / Brown
When most appendages are amber (more than 80%) it means they have been passed. It can still be collected but it will have a more relaxing and narcotic effect. This means that "you miss the "rice": the cannabinoids have begun to degrade and to rust in contact with air and light, and have lost the vast majority of their psychoactive effects by degradation, especially of THC. THC has begun its transformation to CBN (cannabinol), leading to a more narcotic herb with a relaxing effect, even if you have grown a high quality sativa plant.
Photos of trichomes ready to cut
Photos of mature trichomes
Here’s what you need to know before seeing your regional medical dispensary:You may require a physician’s recommendation, medical cannabis certificate, or whatever appropriate documentation is required by your condition. Ordinarily, you need to be 18 or older to qualify for a medical authorization, but exceptions could be made in some conditions for minors with particularly debilitating problems. You will usually register with a medicinal dispensary. This is to keep your medical cannabis recommendation or certificate on file for regulatory and legal purposes. There will be a waiting room. This will be to control the circulation of product and patients, but a straightforward dividing wall gives patients solitude and direct one-on-one contact with a budtender to candidly discuss medical issues. Many times, but not necessarily, your purchases will be tracked by medical dispensaries. This procedure can assist budtenders and patients track effective medicine in addition to have a living record of manufacturers and products for future reference and follow up. Medicinal dispensaries usually permit you to smell and analyze the buds prior to buy. This might vary from state-to-state.
DOES AN APPLICANT NEED MUNICIPAL APPROVAL BEFORE RECEIVING A RETAIL CANNABIS LICENSE? Yes, municipal approval is necessary prior to the AGLC will issue a retail cannabis license. Applicants should get in touch with their planned municipality to learn requirements regarding municipal retail cannabis laws, zoning requirements, land-use limitations, and location requirements regarding how near a retail store is to a provincial medical care facility, school, or parcel of land designated as a school reserve.
Keep non-medical cannabis legal Adults that are 19 decades or older are in a position to:Possess up to 30 gram of authorized dried cannabis or the equivalent in their person. Share up to 30 gram of legal cannabis with other adults in Canada. Purchase cannabis goods from a Yukon Liquor Corporation licensed merchant. Grow up to four plants per household. It’s illegal to present non invasive cannabis to anyone under the age of 19 and also for anyone below the age of 19 to have any amount of non-medical cannabis in Yukon.It is dangerous and illegal to drive while under the influence of cannabis or other intoxicants.