With significant advances in research on the role of cannabinoid receptors in bone behavior, this article aims to establish if there is also potential for a therapeutic use of cannabinoids in the reconstruction of cartilage. Due to its slow repair capacity and the prevalence of cartilage diseases, this subject has become an important field of research in medicine.
Regenerative medicine (tissue repair)
An article published in 2000 defines "tissue engineering" as the emerging discipline in terms of the design and construction of parts of the human body capable of restoring function based on molecular bioengineering. In this way, replacement of lost parts should perform similar biological functions.
To manufacture biomimetic substitutes, three basic ingredients have been identified: inductive signals, receptive candidate cells, and an appropriate extracellular matrix (ECM). Signs, as well as growth factor, are an essential component for any biomaterial of tissue engineering, since most candidate cells involved in tissue engineering processes lose their program of intrinsic differentiation. To date, neither conventional treatments nor surgical techniques for repair lost cartilage tissues have given satisfactory results in the long term. Therefore, the future of this new science is very promising, especially for degenerative diseases of the joints. In addition, better control may be possible in combination with cannabinoid drugs.
The endocannabinoid system (SEC)
The endocannabinoid system is composed of endocannabinoid ligands (the best known are anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol), which are molecules that produce a signal by binding to a target site, the cannabinoid receptors (called CB1 and CB2), and the enzymes that synthesize and degrade endocannabinoids. CB1 receptors are found mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system, where they mediate the inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In particular, the pattern of distribution of CB1 receptors at the spinal, supra-spinal and peripheral levels supports their ability to produce analgesic signals, both in animals and in humans.
On the other hand, CB2 receptors are found mainly in immune cells. However, it has been reported that CB2 is involved in depression, emesis and drug abuse, playing roles wider than those restricted to peripheral and defense cells. In any case, the new evidence implicates the SEC in a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes.
The Chondrocytes and the SEC
Chondrocytes are the cells present in healthy cartilage, which produces and maintains a cartilaginous matrix (mainly collagen and proteoglycans).
It has been described that synthetic cannabinoids act as cartilage protective agents in animals, through their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and also by repealing the degradation of proteoglycans (the filler material found between cells in an organism). ). Another study showed that cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) are found in human osteoarthritis articular chondrocytes. In addition, the same research concluded that a synthetic cannabinoid inhibited the production of inflammatory signals in bovine articular chondrocytes.
A different publication revealed that CB1 and CB2 are present in the auxiliary cartilage cells, as well as the fibroblast, myofibroblast and synoviocytes. Additionally, the results also showed that the activation of the endocannabinoid system cushions the destruction of the cartilage by decreasing the metalloproteinase secreted by fibroblasts (enzymes that separate collagen in the space between cells). Certainly, ajulemic acid, a synthetic cannabinoid, Analogue of 11-Nor-9-carboxy-THC (the main non-psychoactive metabolite of Δ9-THC, produced in the body after cannabis use), induces an anti-inflammatory profile of eicosanoids in human synovial cells, preventing the degradation of cartilage.
Research on the endocannabinoid system in terms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are the precursors of cartilage, has been conducted with positive results. A review examined three factors of the CMM: survival, migration and differentiation, and established that during an inflammation (severe stress), the presence of Δ9-THC enhances the survival of the CMM.
Additionally, a significant increase in the migration of the CMM to the site with tissue damage was induced by anandamide, which implies an acceleration in the tissue regeneration of cartilage and an improvement in the success of tissue engineering strategies. Finally, the Δ9-THC also enhances chondrogenesis in CMM. It was demonstrated that MSCs differentiate into chondrocytes as determined by a proliferation in the expression of collagen II and the presence of proteoglycan deposits in the extracellular matrix.
As a final point, another non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, the cannabidiol (CBD), demonstrated immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis.
The evidence presented highlights how the endocannabinoid system can affect the major facets of mesenchymal stem cells and supports the benefits of cannabinoid-based medicines in their application for tissue engineering, destined to attenuate cartilage degradation Y facilitate its repair. For example, the properties of CBD provide good protection against histological lesions, especially in arthritic disorders, improving the symptoms caused by this condition.
However, more research on medicinal cannabis in humans is needed to better understand all the pharmacological mechanisms by which the cartilage degradation is avoided through the use of cannabis.
Did you like this post? Make an assessment. This post has been made based on existing research until the date of publication of the article. Due to the increase of studies around medical cannabis, the information exposed may vary over time and we will inform in subsequent writings.
Idris A.I., van 't Hof R.J., Greig I.R., Ridge S.A., Baker D., Ross R.A., Ralston S.H. Regulation of bone mass, bone loss and osteoclast activity by cannabinoid receptors. Nat. Med. 2005; 11: 774-779
Reddi A.H. Morphogenesis and tissue engineering of bone and cartilage: inductive signals, stem cells, and biomimetic biomaterials. Tissue Eng. 2000; 6: 351-359. doi: 10.1089 / 107632700418074
Nesic D., Whiteside R., Brittberg M., Wendt D., Martin I., Mainil-Varlet P. Cartilage tissue engineering for degenerative joint disease. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 2006; 58: 300-322.
Howlett A.C., Barth F., Bonner T.I., Cabral G., Casellas P., Devane W.A., Felder C.C., Herkenham M., Mackie K., Martin B.R., Mechoulam R., Pertwee R.G. International Union of Pharmacology. XXVII. Classification of cannabinoid receptors. Pharmacol. Rev. 2002; 54: 161-202. doi: 10.1124 / pr.54.2.161.
Walker J.M., Hohmann A.G. Cannabinoid mechanisms of pain suppression. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 2005; 168: 509-554.
Onaivi ES, Ishiguro H., Gong JP, Patel S., Perchuk A., Meozzi PA, Myers L., Mora Z., Tagliaferro P., Gardner E., Brusco A., Akinshola BE, Liu QR, Hope B. , Iwasaki S., Arinami T., Teasenfitz L., Uhl GR Discovery of the presence and functional expression of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in brain. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 2006; 1074: 514-536. doi: 10.1196 / annals.1369.052.
Mbvundula E.C., Bunning R.A., Rainsford K.D. Effects of cannabinoids on nitric oxide production by chondrocytes and proteoglycan degradation in cartilage. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2005; 69: 635-640.
Kong, Y., Wang, W., Zhang, C., Wu, Y., Liu, Y., and Zhou, X. (2016, June). Cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2 mesylate inhibits ADAMTS-4 activity in human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes by inhibiting expression of syndecan-1. Molecular Medicine Reports, 13 (6), 4569-76.
McPartland J.M. Expression of the endocannabinoid system in fibroblasts and myofascial tissues. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 2008; 12: 169-182.
Stebulis J.A., Johnson D.R., Rossetti R.G., Burstein S.H., Zurier R.B. Ajulemic acid, a synthetic cannabinoid acid, induces an anti-inflammatory profile of eicosanoids in human synovial cells. Life Sci. 2008; 83: 666-670.
- Gowran, K. McKayed, M. Kanichai, C. White, N. Hammadi, V. Campbell, Tissue engineering of cartilage: can cannabinoids help? Pharmaceuticals 3 (2010) 2970-2985.
Malfait A.M., Gallily R., Sumariwalla P.F., Malik A.S., Andreakos E., Mechoulam R., Feldmann M. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2000; 97: 9561-9566.
Here’s what you need to know before seeing your local medical dispensary:You may need a physician’s recommendation, medical cannabis certificate, or whatever appropriate documentation is needed by your state. Ordinarily, you must be 18 or older to be eligible for a medical consent, but exceptions could be made in some states for minors with especially debilitating conditions. You will often enroll with a medicinal dispensary. This is to keep your medical cannabis recommendation or certificate on file for regulatory and legal purposes. There’ll be a waiting space. This is to control the circulation of patients and product, but a straightforward dividing wall also gives patients privacy and direct one-on-one contact using a budtender to discuss medical problems. Many times, but not necessarily, your purchases will be monitored by medical dispensaries. This procedure can assist budtenders and patients track effective medication in addition to have a living listing of producers and products for future reference and follow up. Medicinal dispensaries usually permit you to smell and analyze the buds before buy. This may vary from state-to-state.
DOES AN APPLICANT NEED MUNICIPAL APPROVAL BEFORE RECEIVING A RETAIL CANNABIS LICENSE? Yes, municipal approval is required before the AGLC will subject a retail cannabis license. Applicants should get in touch with their intended municipality to find out requirements concerning municipal retail cannabis laws, zoning requirements, land-use restrictions, and place requirements regarding how close a retail shop is to a provincial health care centre, school, or parcel of land designated as a school book.
Keep non-medical cannabis legal Adults that are 19 decades or older are in a position to:Possess up to 30 gram of authorized dried cannabis or the equivalent on their own person. Share up to 30 gram of legal cannabis along with other adults in Canada. Buy cannabis products from a Yukon Liquor Corporation licensed merchant. Grow up to four plants per family. It’s illegal to present non-medical cannabis to anyone under the age of 19 and for anybody below the age of 19 to have any amount of anti inflammatory cannabis in Yukon.It is illegal and dangerous to drive while under the influence of cannabis or other intoxicants.