Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological problems in the world. The word "epilepsy" encompasses several different syndromes whose main characteristic is the tendency to recurrent unprovoked seizures (two or more)
What causes epilepsy?
Epilepsy occurs as a result of the following causes
- Idiopathic (unknown origin)
- Pure epilepsies due to a single gene disorder (eg, severe myoclonic epilepsy of childhood or Dravet syndrome).
- Pure epilepsies with complex inheritance (for example, idiopathic generalized epilepsy, partial benign epilepsies of childhood).
- Symptomatic (associated with anatomical anomalies)
- Causes mostly genetic or developmental
- Childhood epilepsy syndrome (for example, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome).
- Progressive myoclonic epilepsies (contractions of one or more muscles).
- Neurocutaneous syndromes (eg, Neurofibromatosis).
- Other neurological disorders of a single gene (eg, CDKL5 deficiency disorder).
- Disorders of chromosomal function (eg, Down syndrome).
- Abnormalities of brain structure development.
- Causes, mostly, acquired
- Sclerosis of the hippocampus.
- Perinatal and infant causes.
- Brain trauma, tumor or infection.
- Cerebrovascular disorder.
- Immunological disorders of the brain.
- Degenerative and other neurological conditions.
- Causes mostly genetic or developmental
- Brought about (a specific environmental or systemic factor is the predominant cause). Drug-resistant cases:
- Provocative factors (eg, fever, drug-induced seizures, stress, lack of sleep).
- Reflex epilepsies (eg, photosensitive epilepias).
- Cryptogenic (a presumed symptomatic nature for which the cause has not been identified)
what are the signs and symptoms?
Epilepsy is defined at the time when two or more unprovoked seizures occur. Seizures are brief episodes of involuntary movements that can affect the whole body (generalized) or a part of the body (partial) and, sometimes, accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bladder or bowel function. Excessive electric shocks on brain cells cause seizures.
Seizures can vary in attention spans or muscle jerks to prolonged and severe seizures, as well as in frequency, from once a year to several times a day. Symptoms and signs vary and depend on where the disturbance in the brain begins and to what extent it spreads. The loss of consciousness and the alteration of cognitive functions, mood, sensation (including taste, hearing and vision) or movement, may occur temporarily.
Treatment and effectiveness
Seizures can be controlled in approximately 70% of children and in 60% of adults. The rest respond poorly or may need surgical therapy.
The role of CBD in epilepsy
At a medical level, refractory epilepsy remains an area of scientific interest since up to 35% of patients continue to suffer seizures despite current therapies. Recent evidence has focused on the benefit of cannabidiol (CBD), a medicinal cannabis-based product without psychoactive properties, which is used to decrease the frequency of seizures.
Preclinical studies using purified CBD in animals suffering from epilepsy (generalized or partial) showed an anticolvusive effect. Meanwhile, controlled clinical studies of purified CBD in humans showed mixed results.
Around that time, in Colorado (USA), a family began to explore a complementary treatment with a variety of cannabis enriched with CBD for their daughter, Charlotte Figi, a girl with Dravet syndrome. After 20 months of treatment, the family reported a reduction in the frequency of seizures from more than 300 per week to less than 3 seizures per month. Charlotte also started talking and walking again. In this context, the growing interest of physicians and families to better regulate this medication prompted more studies, which facilitated the approval of the Federal Administration of Medicines of a new oral extract of CBD (Epidiolex) to 99% pure in June 2018, and that the administration of this medicinal cannabis is already in Annex V of the Controlled Substances Act since September 2018.
In 2019, a group of researchers analyzed several articles published on this pure oral extract of CBD as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. In two epileptic syndromes, mainly from infancy, the Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes, seizures decrease by 50%. In addition, in patients with epilepsy resistant to treatment of multiple etiologies, a similar benefit was observed. An interruption / decrease in the dose of anticonvulsant medication was also observed when taking the CBD oil. Cannabidiol is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (a group of proteins in the liver), the same system used by some anticonvulsant medications, this relationship can contribute to its effectiveness as a complementary therapy. Therefore, a reduction of some anticonvulsant doses is possible when CBD is taken. In general, CBD is well tolerated, even in high concentrations.
The anticonvulsant properties are not clear. The effect of CBD on cannabinoid receptors (CB1 / CB2) may not be a complete explanation, but may be related to the endocannabinoid system, specifically by inhibiting the degradation of anandamide, resulting in a decrease in excess activity neuronal. The anticonvulsant effect due to the anti-inflammatory action of CBD has also been proposed by inhibiting the reuptake of adenosine or modulating the release of TNF-alpha.
Another study of 2019, focused on the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol in epilepsy. Drowsiness was the most frequent adverse effect in association with clobazam. Concomitant use of valproate also increased elevations of transaminases, but was reversible when CBD was discontinued. In summary, cannabidiol is safe. Unfortunately, approved pharmaceutical grade CBD oil is expensive. Finally, it is important to have adequate medical supervision to prescribe the CBD as an anticonvulsant for epilepsy, as well as to manage the product's validity, side effects and pharmacological interaction..
The therapeutic potential of CBD in epilepsy It's real, but more studies are needed to better understand the full mechanism of action.
Did you like this post? Make an assessment. This post has been made based on existing research until the date of publication of the article. Due to the increase of studies around medical cannabis, the information exposed may vary over time and we will inform in subsequent writings.
 Chang, B. S., & Lowenstein, D. H. (2003). Epilepsy. New England Journal of Medicine, 349 (13), 1257-1266. doi: 10.1056 / nejmra022308
 Shorvon, S. D. (2011). The etiologic classification of epilepsy. Epilepsy, 52 (6), 1052-1057. doi: 10.1111 / j.1528-1167.2011.03041.x
 "Epilepsy Fact sheet". QUIEN. February 2019. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
 Sekar, K., & Pack, A. (2019). Epidemiology as adjunct therapy for treatment of refractory epilepsy: a comprehensive review with a focus on adverse effects. F1000Research, 8, 234.doi: 10.12688 / f1000research.16515.1
 Samanta, D. (2019). Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Efficacy and Safety in Epilepsy. Pediatric Neurology.doi: 10.1016 / j.pediatrneurol.2019.03.014
Here is what you want to know before seeing your local medical dispensary:You will need a physician’s recommendation, medical cannabis certificate, and/or whatever proper documentation is needed by your condition. Typically, you need to be 18 or older to qualify for a medical authorization, but exceptions could be made in some conditions for minors with especially debilitating problems. You will usually register with a medicinal dispensary. This is to keep your medical cannabis recommendation or certificate on file for regulatory and legal purposes. There’ll be a waiting space. This is to control the flow of product and patients, but a straightforward dividing wall also gives patients privacy and direct one-on-one contact with a budtender to candidly discuss medical problems. This process can assist budtenders and patients track effective medication as well as have a living listing of producers and products for future reference and follow-up. Medicinal dispensaries usually permit you to smell and examine the buds prior to purchase. This may differ from state-to-state.
DOES AN APPLICANT NEED MUNICIPAL APPROVAL BEFORE RECEIVING A RETAIL CANNABIS LICENSE? Yes, municipal approval is required before the AGLC will subject a retail cannabis license. Applicants must get in touch with their planned municipality to find out requirements concerning municipal retail cannabis legislation, zoning requirements, land-use limitations, and place requirements regarding how close a retail shop can be into a provincial medical care centre, college, or parcel of property designated as a college book.
Keep non-medical cannabis legal Adults that are 19 decades or older are in a position to:Possess up to 30 gram of authorized dried cannabis or the equivalent on their person. Share up to 30 g of legal cannabis along with other adults in Canada. Purchase cannabis goods from a Yukon Liquor Corporation licensed merchant. Grow up to four crops per household. It’s illegal to provide non invasive cannabis to anyone below the age of 19 and also for anybody under the age of 19 to possess any amount of non-medical cannabis in Yukon.It is dangerous and illegal to drive while under the influence of cannabis or other intoxicants.